Paulo Jorge de Moura Borges Dias Andrade
Contributing the Design process to the creative process of Photography
Anibal Lemos, DERBY University
In this research, photography is approached as a vehicle of communication, in which Design provides principles for a process, resulting in an iconographic and symbolic image. We present how the political apparatus used photography and images to make a positive contribution to the creation of a political regime, and how the design process and foundations added value to the images (Taschen 2001, Tupitsyn 1998). In the review of the literature, three photographers were found to show this capacity, namely: Aleksandr Rodchenko, with the contribution of Constructivism, Joe Rosenthal and the representation of the image as an identification of mythical heroism (Health, 2012; Eastwood, 2007) and Alberto Korda, with the image Che Guevara de Guerrillero Heroico that presents itself as a universal symbol (Ziff, 2008; Lidwell, W, Holden, & Butler, 2010).
In the field of fashion photography stands out the designer Alexey Brodovitch due to influence in the magazine Harper's Bazaar's. Other photographers who contributed to the fashion image were Irving Penn with abstract compositions of objects, Steven Meisel with his creativity in the publishing world of fashion and Oliviero Toscani with his provocative side appealing to social consciousness.
It is possible to verify the interaction of Design and Photography throughout the work (Bauret, 2005; Arrowsmith, Penn, & Majocchi, 1991; Toscani, 2018), with examples of photographers with learning in Graphic Design who use the camera as tool and Design as a process (Usatin & Roma, 2017). From these realities it is intended to systematize a set of principles that are the result of the knowledge acquired through literature review and case study and that can bridge the gap between Photography and the image with Design and its principles as a process.
The interaction / symbiosis of Photography and Design, the use and understanding of the various elements that are assigned to Photography and the evidence of the contributions of Design, are a valuation for communication. Graphic design as a creative contribution, the camera as a tool, the set of actions leads to the construction of the final image. The process is part of the preparation, it teaches us to visualize in advance the "results" applied to projects and graphic works. Photography and Design generate movement and dynamism in image and communication. One of the principles of Graphic Design is the repeated exposure of the image, which generates stimuli that graphically contribute to the creation of the universal icon or symbol. Photography crystallizes the moment of action. The study of Design, the valorisation in creativity and the universality of the image. Graphic design as a creative lever in the photographic and image process (Lidwell et al., 2010).
The methodology used in this research work is based on literature review and case study (non-intervention component of the methodology, qualitative). The research identified some principles of Design that are evidenced in Photography (Yin, 2010), through the study of photographers in which the mentioned relationship is verified. This work is part of an investigation of the PhD in Design that aims to establish bridges between the principles of Design and Photography (Muratovski, 2016).
This research allowed the collection, analysis and fusion of information from case studies and literature review and, with these, establish some bridges between Design and Photography, giving some emphasis to graphic design, and that may indicate the possibility of an interaction between the Design methodology and the Photography processes. From the cases studied, Rodchenko (constructivist movement) was used to use the camera in an odd way and that the principles of Design, such as consistency, repetition of stimuli and chopped point of view were verified (Tupitsyn, 1998; Lidwell et al., 2010); both in Rosenthal and in Korda and verifies the presence of the principles of Design, simplification and iconicity. Rosenthal immortalized the heroism of the Marines in the battle of Iwo Jima, with an image that was used as a symbol and icon (Lidwell et al., 2010). Korda was the author of the symbolic image of Che Guevara, which reflects the vision of the Guerrillero Heroico. These characteristics are projected intensely when the image benefits from its expansion by diverse visual supports, reaching a kind of immortality (Lidwell et al., 2010; Ziff, 2008) and with it the cult status.
Objects he photographed, as well as with the forms (Arrowsmith et al., 1991). Meisel was able to use illustration learning to photographically create his models, checking the principles of classical conditioning and colour, and Toscani, created and triggered the consciousness of society through his controversial photographs for Benetton, observing classical conditioning, consistency and exposure effect (Toscani, 2018a). Already Platon, through the learning of graphic design, is able to create highly graphic images, in which the camera is an instrument to support the process, a Design principle (Usatin & Roma, 2017).
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